What factors associate with depression, anxiety, and PTSD during the COVID-19 pandemic?
Jocelyn (Junru) Liu
During the COVID-19 epidemic in the United States, Liu’s study in 2020 looked at the possible factors linked to depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptomatology in young adults (18-30 years). This cross-sectional online survey evaluated 898 individuals between April 13, 2020, and May 19, 2020, about a month after the United States proclaimed a state of emergency due to COVID-19 and before the initial easing of restrictions in 50 states. Significant levels of depression (43.3 percent, PHQ-8 scores of 10) were recorded, as were high levels of anxiety (45.4 percent, GAD-7 scores of 10) and high levels of PTSD symptoms (31.8 percent, PCL-C scores of 45). Clinical levels of depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms were substantially linked with high levels of loneliness, high levels of COVID-19-specific worry, and low discomfort tolerance. Low levels of despair and anxiety symptoms were linked to resilience, but not PTSD. The majority of respondents had high levels of social support; family support, but not partner or peer support, was linked to lower levels of depression and PTSD. These criteria offer preliminary advice on how to treat COVID-19-related mental health issues in the clinic.
Liu. C., Zhang. E., Wong. G., Hyun. S., Hahm. H. 2020. Factors associated with depression, anxiety, and PTSD symptomatology during the COVID-19 pandemic: Clinical implications for U.S. young adult mental health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113172